You are here

Garden Soil

The ideal garden soil is deep, loose, fertile, and well-drained (internally as well as on the surface), has plenty of organic matter, and is free of weeds and diseases. Such soils are difficult to find, but with proper preparation and management, less-than-ideal soils can be productive.

Water moves quickly through an internally well-drained soil and never completely shuts off air movement. Drainage is important because roots cannot develop, live, and function without a constant supply of oxygen.

Clay soils dry slowly after a rain because the spaces in them are small and water moves through them slowly. Sandy soils, on the other hand, have many spaces and dry out quickly. Clay and sandy soils can be partially changed to substitute for a rich loam by adding organic matter. Increasing the organic matter content of a clay soil improves the tilth, makes it easier to work, and improves the internal drainage. Adding organic matter to a sandy soil increases its water-holding capacity and improves its fertility.

The garden soil affects the way vegetable plants grow and look. When soils are cold, wet, crusty, or cloddy, seedlings are slow to emerge and some may not survive. Root rot diseases may take a heavy toll on seedlings, especially beans. Other soil-related plant symptoms are short plants, slow growth, poor color, and shallow and malformed roots. Soil symptoms of poor structure are crusts, hard soil layers below the surface, standing water, and erosion.

Increase the soil’s organic matter content by adding manure, composted leaves, sawdust, bark, or peatmoss; or by turning under plant residues like sweet corn stalks after harvest, and green manure crops (soybeans, rye, southern pea plants, and others). Plant residues should be free of diseases if they are to be added to the garden soil. Cover crops, such as clovers and vetch, planted in the fall prevent soil erosion and leaching of plant nutrients. They also provide organic matter and nitrogen when turned under in spring.

Manures vary in their content of fertilizing nutrients. The amount of straw, age, exposure to the elements, and degree of composting change their composition. Be careful not to over-fertilize when applying chicken litter to garden soil. Use no more than 200 pounds per 1,000 square feet of garden space. Animal manure is lower in nutrient content than poultry manure and can be applied at the rate of 250 to 300 pounds per 1,000 square feet.

Overuse of manures can add so much salt to the soil that plant growth is harmed. Most organic materials release some nutrients quickly and the rest over a period of time. (See Organic Gardening, page 5.) Even though adding organic matter improves soil fertility, manures and plant residues are not balanced fertilizers, and soils require additional fertilizer. Test soil every third year to be sure.

Printer Friendly and PDF

Publications

Publication Number: P2364
Publication Number: P3076
Publication Number: M2064
Publication Number: P1091

News

Long, narrow lavender flower petals open wide among the dark green leaves.
Filed Under: Master Gardener, Flower Gardens, Vegetable Gardens February 20, 2018

STARKVILLE, Miss. -- The Everything Garden Expo, presented by the Oktibbeha County Master Gardeners, will return to the Mississippi Horse Park on March 24 and 25.

Filed Under: Specialty Crop Production, Local Food System Economies, Herb Gardens, Vegetable Gardens January 11, 2018

CARRIERE, Miss. -- The Small Farm Training Center will host the Alliance of Sustainable Farms field day on Jan. 19 in Hancock County.

Farm operators Terry and Elicia Sheldon, along with student apprentices who live and work at the center, will show attendees their techniques for growing organic produce.

Filed Under: Vegetable Gardens January 8, 2018

VERONA, Miss. -- Produce growers can enhance their operations through an upcoming workshop hosted by the Mississippi State University Extension Service.

The 2018 North Mississippi Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference will be held at the MSU Agri-Center in Verona Feb. 8-9.

Filed Under: Lawn and Garden, Flower Gardens, Herb Gardens, Vegetable Gardens August 29, 2017

CRYSTAL SPRINGS, Miss. -- Home gardeners and horticulture professionals can learn about the latest plants, research and gardening techniques during the 39th annual Fall Flower & Garden Fest on Oct. 13 and 14. 

Filed Under: Food and Health, Food, Nutrition, SNAP-Ed, Herb Gardens, Vegetable Gardens, Youth Gardening August 9, 2017

RAYMOND, Miss. -- The Mississippi State University Extension Service hired three regional registered dietitians to help in the fight against obesity and chronic disease in Mississippi.

Samantha Willcutt, Kaitlin DeWitt and Juaqula Madkin have joined the Extension Office of Nutrition Education. They oversee the Extension Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education, or SNAP-Ed, curriculum and delivery in their regions.

Watch

Southern Blight on Tomatoes - MSU Extension Service
Extension Stories

Southern Blight on Tomatoes

Wednesday, May 3, 2017 - 3:45pm
Tomato Tips  - MSU Extension Service
Extension Stories

Tomato Tips

Tuesday, April 25, 2017 - 3:00pm
Winter Gardens
Southern Gardening

Winter Gardens

Saturday, January 16, 2016 - 6:00pm
Winter Vegetable Gardens
Southern Gardening

Winter Vegetable Gardens

Saturday, January 9, 2016 - 6:00pm

Listen

Thursday, February 1, 2018 - 2:00am
Wednesday, January 31, 2018 - 2:00am
Thursday, November 16, 2017 - 2:45am
Monday, September 25, 2017 - 1:00am

Contact Your County Office

Your Extension Experts

Extension/Research Professor
Greenhouse Tomatoes and other vegetables, Field Vegetables, Mushrooms