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The Economic Contribution of Agriculture and Forestry Production and Processing in Mississippi: An Input-Output Analysis

Publication Number: P2879
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Agriculture and forestry are major contributors to Mississippi’s economy. In 2012 alone, agriculture and forestry production and processing sectors directly accounted for 118,075 jobs paying $3.2 billion in wages and salaries (Table 1). In addition, agriculture and forestry-related sectors directly accounted for $27.7 billion in sales and generated $6.3 billion in value-added products. Clearly, agriculture and forestry provide a major contribution to the Mississippi economy. Yet that contribution has a much larger impact on the Mississippi economy than just the direct impacts of agriculture and forestry previously described. A larger total impact results when accounting for the indirect and induced effects of the agriculture and forestry industry and employee spending. This report provides an estimate of the economic impacts of agriculture and forestry using the most recent data available on production (e.g., farms, timber stands), primary processing activities (e.g., cotton ginning, paper mills), and value-added products (e.g., snack food manufacturing, stationery product manufacturing). This report focuses on the total economic impact of agriculture and forest activities on employment and income.

Methods

The total economic impact is the sum of direct effects, indirect effects, and induced effects. Direct effects represent the economic activity from businesses defined as belonging in agriculture (i.e., producers, processors, and agricultural support services). Indirect effects represent the economic activity from businesses and organizations not traditionally thought of as agriculture-related (e.g., education, information, and insurance), though they may supply goods and services to agricultural businesses. Indirect effects are a basic response to agricultural activities and reflect the interdependence between businesses and industries throughout the economy. Induced effects simply reflect spending by households as a result of direct and indirect effects.

Data for the direct effects and estimation of the indirect and induced effects came from a well-known input-output modeling system called Impact for Planning and Analysis, or IMPLAN, which is updated annually by the IMPLAN Group LLC (MIG 2010). IMPLAN is a computerized database and modeling system for constructing regional economic accounts and regional input-output tables. The IMPLAN 440 sector input-output model is based primarily on data from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Geological Survey. The most recent 2012 IMPLAN data were used for this study.

The IMPLAN model was used to estimate the total economic contribution of agriculture and forestry (i.e., direct, indirect, and induced). The estimation approach followed that of IMPLAN Group LLC for assessing the economic contribution of an industry. Results indicate the industries that benefit the most from the economic contribution of agriculture and forestry.

This study combines the 440 sectors of the IMPLAN database into 32 aggregated sectors—13 agriculture and forestry sectors and 19 sectors representing the rest of the Mississippi economy (Table A.1). This procedure was used by Barnett and Reinschmiedt (1996), who modeled the Mississippi economy using 45 aggregated sectors—26 food and fiber sectors and 18 non-food and non-fiber sectors. These are the 13 agriculture and forestry production and processing sector groups:

  • agriculture support activities
  • cattle and dairy
  • commercial fishing and wildlife
  • cotton farms
  • food and fiber products
  • grain farms
  • logging
  • other animal production (hogs, horses, aquaculture)
  • other farms (vegetable and melon)
  • poultry
  • soybean farms
  • wood and paper products
  • wood furniture manufacturing

The economic contribution of agriculture and forestry-related sectors to Mississippi can be measured by employment, employee compensation, output, and value-added. Employment is simply the number of full- and part-time jobs. Employee compensation is the wages paid. Output is the total value of goods and services produced. Value-added is the total value of goods and services produced minus the costs of purchased inputs. Value-added is the amount of money available for disbursement, either in the form of wages, owner compensation, or taxes.

Results

The combined economic contribution of the agriculture and forestry production and processing sectors had a substantial effect on the Mississippi economy as measured by jobs, employee compensation, total output, and value-added (Table 2). Employment is the annual average number of full-time and part-time jobs in the private and public sectors. This measure represents people employed for wages as well as those who are self-employed. Agricultural and forestry activities contributed to an estimated total employment impact of 274,250 jobs in the state, or about 18.3 percent of all jobs in Mississippi. Employee compensation is the annual monetary wages and salaries paid to employees and self-employed people, and it includes the value of benefits. Agricultural and forestry activities contributed an estimated $8.8 billion in labor income (16 percent of state labor income). Output represents the total gross sales for goods and services throughout the state. In 2012, agriculture and forestry activities, including production and processing, directly and indirectly accounted for $46 billion in output, or 20.6 percent of all economic activity in Mississippi. Value-added is the residual value of a sector’s outputs after it pays for its inputs. This performance measure avoids double counting the value of an output from one sector that is used as an input in another sector. A sector’s value-added is distributed as wages and salaries, rental payments, royalties from contracts, dividends from corporations, corporate profits, or indirect business taxes (such as property taxes, excise taxes, and sales taxes). In 2012, agriculture and forestry activities contributed $18.1 billion in value-added, or 16.8 percent of all value-added generated in the state.

Summary

Agriculture and forestry production and processing is a $46 billion dollar industry in Mississippi. These production and processing industries provide a major economic contribution to the Mississippi economy, accounting for 274,250 jobs, or 18.3 percent of all jobs in the state; $8.8 billion in labor income, or 16.0 percent of the state’s total wages and salaries; $46 billion in goods and services, or 20.6 percent of all sales; and $18.1 billion in value-added, or 16.8 percent of Mississippi’s total value-added. Clearly, agriculture and forestry are important to Mississippi’s economy.

Literature Cited

Barnett, B. and L. Reinschmiedt. 1996. Agriculture and Forestry in Mississippi—An Analysis of the Impacts of Food and Fiber Related Sectors on the Mississippi Economy. Agricultural Economics Technical Bulletin No. 95. Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi.

MIG, Inc. 2010. IMPLAN Version 3.0 User’s Guide. Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota.

 

Table 1. Direct impacts on Mississippi employment, compensation, output, and value-added of the aggregated industrial sectors (2012).

Model sectors

Employment

Wages and

salaries ($MM)1

Total industry output ($MM) 1

Value-added ($MM) 1

Soybean farms

12,357

5.03

1,331.30

485.10

Grain farms

18,850

19.95

1,205.35

256.48

Other farms

1,134

19.51

311.21

114.46

Cotton farms

2,972

53.69

693.14

151.88

Cattle and diary

1,926

10.31

375.18

62.88

Poultry and egg

4,081

123.32

2,744.05

494.88

Aquaculture and other animal production

6,542

24.38

348.22

174.18

Logging

5,141

151.75

1,183.88

279.69

Commercial fishing and wildlife

1,396

2.32

96.21

57.80

Agriculture and forestry support activities

7,206

173.45

186.76

140.98

Food and fiber products

27,254

1,006.64

11,698.42

1,430.97

Wood and paper products

12,698

921.92

4,721.30

1,577.61

Wood furniture manufacturing

16,517

648.81

2,805.05

1,096.69

All agriculture-related sectors

118,075

3,161

27,700

6,324

21 Mining

15,561

556.65

3,826.73

1,565.09

22 Utilities

7,945

781.40

5,312.17

3,087.37

23 Construction

85,346

2,846.38

13,607.95

5,615.42

31–33 Manufacturing

79,995

5,467.00

57,347.33

12,163.18

42 Wholesale trade

37,149

2,087.91

7,067.60

4,393.52

44-45 Retail trade

161,749

4,103.94

10,712.09

7,811.82

48–49 Transportation & warehousing

49,401

1,993.37

6,777.96

3,295.67

51 Information

14,658

705.80

4,962.41

2,304.48

52 Finance & insurance

55,637

2,174.45

11,249.91

6,372.64

53 Real estate & rental

46,847

497.60

15,669.76

11,693.08

54 Professional—scientific & tech services

56,769

2,175.23

5,566.37

3,732.90

55 Management of companies

10,867

994.82

1,995.99

1,169.24

56 Administrative & waste services

86,993

1,790.76

4,625.04

2,804.88

61 Educational services

24,945

656.44

1,326.84

835.18

62 Health & social services

145,042

6,186.87

12,582.85

7,990.92

71 Arts—entertainment & recreation

23,295

468.54

1,596.87

1,029.49

72 Accommodation & food services

115,468

2,320.86

7,069.54

3,730.42

81 Other services

80,874

1,662.72

4,287.13

2,608.31

92 Government & non-NAICs

280,441

14,157.57

19,659.55

18,721.65

All other sectors

1,378,981

51,628.31

195,244.09

100,925.25

Total economy

1,497,056

54,756.90

222,944.16

107,773.80

1Values are expressed in 2012 dollars.

 

Table 2. Total impacts of agriculture and forestry production and processing on Mississippi employment, wages, output, and value-added for the aggregated industrial sectors (2012).

Model sectors

Employment

Wages and

salaries ($MM) 1

Total industry output ($MM) 1

Value-added ($MM) 1

Soybean farms

12,357

5.03

1,331.30

559.74

Grain farms

18,850

19.95

1,205.35

272.95

Other farms

1,134

19.51

311.21

142.24

Cotton farms

2,972

53.69

693.14

151.88

Cattle and diary

1,926

10.31

375.18

76.68

Poultry and egg

4,081

123.32

2,744.05

549.87

Aquaculture and other animal production

6,542

24.38

348.22

207.44

Logging

5,141

151.75

1,183.88

551.25

Commercial fishing and wildlife

1,396

2.32

96.21

57.80

Agriculture and forestry support activities

7,206

140.98

186.76

173.45

Food and fiber products

27,254

1,006.64

11,698.42

1,430.97

Wood and paper products

12,698

921.92

4,721.30

1,577.60

Wood furniture manufacturing

16,517

648.81

2,805.05

1,096.69

All agriculture-related sectors

118,075

3,128.59

27,700.06

6,848.55

21 Mining

489

29.58

130.84

57.53

22 Utilities

1,206

118.28

821.82

463.98

23 Construction

8,658

292.60

1,348.37

567.20

31–33 Manufacturing

1,481

91.36

1,151.23

229.47

42 Wholesale trade

6,468

363.55

1,230.62

765.00

44–45 Retail trade

17,437

440.39

1,150.50

833.34

48–49 Transportation & warehousing

7,449

295.64

991.30

476.94

51 Information

2,033

96.81

668.12

308.39

52 Finance & insurance

7,053

279.83

1,601.45

956.41

53 Real estate & rental

7,193

73.37

2,219.89

1,656.57

54 Professional—scientific & tech services

7,998

294.22

780.08

533.34

55 Management of companies

2,640

241.70

484.93

284.07

56 Administrative & waste services

11,101

219.85

544.88

318.02

61 Educational services

2,636

69.38

139.94

88.46

62 Health & social services

17,845

772.10

1,571.75

996.30

71 Arts—entertainment & recreation

2,413

40.06

142.48

86.87

72 Accommodation & food services

12,865

227.15

691.96

365.57

81 Other services

10,533

218.99

558.06

341.62

92 Government & non-NAICs

28,675

1,459.31

2,075.45

1,945.54

Total indirect and induced

156,175

5,624.14

18,303.68

11,274.62

Total impacts

274,250

8,752.73

46,003.74

18,123.18

1Values are expressed in 2012 dollars.

 

Table A.1. Aggregation scheme of commercial sectors used for IMPLAN input-output analysis of agriculture and forestry production and processing impacts on the Mississippi economy, 2012.

Model sectors

Original IMPLAN sectors

Soybean farms

1 Oilseed farming

Grain farms

2 Grain farming

Other farms

3 Vegetable and melon farming; 4 Fruit farming; 5 Tree nut farming; 6 Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production; 7 Tobacco farming; 9 Sugarcane and sugar beet farming; 10 All other crop farming

Cotton farms

8 Cotton farming

Cattle and diary

11 Cattle ranching and farming; 12 Dairy cattle and milk production

Poultry and egg

13 Poultry and egg production

Aquaculture and other animal production

14 Animal production, except cattle and poultry and eggs

Logging

15 Forestry, forest products, and timber tract production; 16 Commercial logging

Commercial fishing

and wildlife

17 Commercial fishing; 18 Commercial hunting and trapping

Agriculture and forestry support activities

19 Support activities for agriculture and forestry

Food and fiber products

41 Dog and cat food manufacturing; 42 Other animal food manufacturing; 43 Flour milling and malt manufacturing; 44 Wet corn milling; 45 Soybean and other oilseed processing; 46 Fats and oils refining and blending; 47 Breakfast cereal manufacturing; 48 Sugar cane mills and refining; 49 Beet sugar manufacturing; 50 Chocolate and confectionery manufacturing from cacao beans; 51 Confectionery manufacturing from purchased chocolate; 52 Non-chocolate confectionery manufacturing; 53 Frozen food manufacturing; 54 Fruit and vegetable canning, pickling, and drying; 55 Fluid milk and butter manufacturing; 56 Cheese manufacturing; 57 Dry, condensed, and evaporated dairy product manufacturing; 58 Ice cream and frozen dessert manufacturing; 59 Animal (except poultry) slaughtering, rendering, and processing; 60 Poultry processing; 61 Seafood product preparation and packaging; 62 Bread and bakery product manufacturing; 63 Cookie, cracker, and pasta manufacturing; 64 Tortilla manufacturing; 65 Snack food manufacturing; 66 Coffee and tea manufacturing; 67 Flavoring syrup and concentrate manufacturing; 68 Seasoning and dressing manufacturing; 69 All other food manufacturing; 70 Soft drink and ice manufacturing; 71 Breweries; 72 Wineries; 73 Distilleries; 74 Tobacco product manufacturing; 75 Fiber, yarn, and thread mills; 76 Broadwoven fabric mills; 77 Narrow fabric mills and schiffli machine embroidery; 78 Nonwoven fabric mills; 79 Knit fabric mills; 80 Textile and fabric finishing mills; 81 Fabric coating mills; 82 Carpet and rug mills; 83 Curtain and linen mills; 84 Textile bag and canvas mills; 85 All other textile product mills; 86 Apparel knitting mills; 87 Cut and sew apparel contractors; 88 Men’s and boys’ cut and sew apparel manufacturing; 89 Women’s and girls’ cut and sew apparel manufacturing; 90 Other cut and sew apparel manufacturing; 91 Apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing; 92 Leather and hide tanning and finishing; 93 Footwear manufacturing; 94 Other leather and allied product manufacturing

Wood and paper

products

95 Sawmills and wood preservation; 96 Veneer and plywood manufacturing; 97 Engineered wood member and truss manufacturing; 98 Reconstituted wood product manufacturing; 99 Wood windows and doors and millwork manufacturing; 100 Wood container and pallet manufacturing; 102 Prefabricated wood building manufacturing; 103 All other miscellaneous wood product manufacturing; 104 Pulp mills; 105 Paper mills; 106 Paperboard Mills; 107 Paperboard container manufacturing; 108 Coated and laminated paper, packaging paper and plastics film manufacturing; 109 All other paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturing; 110 Stationery product manufacturing; 111 Sanitary paper product manufacturing; 112 All other converted paper product manufacturing

Wood furniture

manufacturing

295 Wood kitchen cabinet and countertop manufacturing; 296 Upholstered household furniture manufacturing; 297 Nonupholstered wood household furniture manufacturing; 300 Wood television, radio, and sewing machine cabinet manufacturing; 301 Office furniture and custom architectural woodwork and millwork manufacturing

Mining

20 Extraction of oil and natural gas; 21 Mining coal; 22 Mining iron ore; 23 Mining copper, nickel, lead, and zinc; 24 Mining gold, silver, and other metal ore; 25 Mining and quarrying stone; 26 Mining and quarrying sand, gravel, clay, and ceramic and refractory minerals; 27 Mining and quarrying other nonmetallic minerals; 28 Drilling oil and gas wells; 29 Support activities for oil and gas operations; 30 Support activities for other mining

Utilities

31 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; 32 Natural gas distribution; 33 Water, sewage, and other treatment and delivery systems

Construction

34 Construction of new nonresidential commercial and health care structures; 35 Construction of new nonresidential manufacturing structures; 36 Construction of other new nonresidential structures; 37 Construction of new residential permanent site single- and multi-family structures; 38 Construction of other new residential structures; 39 Maintenance and repair construction of nonresidential structures; 40 Maintenance and repair construction of residential structures

Manufacturing

101 Manufactured home (mobile home) manufacturing; 113 Printing; 114 Support activities for printing; 115 Petroleum refineries; 116 Asphalt paving mixture and block manufacturing; 117 Asphalt shingle and coating materials manufacturing; 118 Petroleum lubricating oil and grease manufacturing; 119 All other petroleum and coal products manufacturing; 120 Petrochemical manufacturing; 121 Industrial gas manufacturing; 122 Synthetic dye and pigment manufacturing; 123 Alkali and chlorine manufacturing; 124 Carbon black manufacturing; 125 All other basic inorganic chemical manufacturing; 126 Other basic organic chemical manufacturing; 127 Plastics material and resin manufacturing; 128 Synthetic rubber manufacturing; 129 Artificial and synthetic fibers and filaments manufacturing; 130 Fertilizer manufacturing; 131 Pesticide and other agricultural chemical manufacturing; 132 Medicinal and botanical manufacturing; 133 Pharmaceutical preparation manufacturing; 134 In vitro diagnostic substance manufacturing; 135 Biological product (except diagnostic) manufacturing; 136 Paint and coating manufacturing; 137 Adhesive manufacturing; 138 Soap and cleaning compound manufacturing; 139 Toilet preparation manufacturing; 140 Printing ink manufacturing; 141 All other chemical product and preparation manufacturing; 142 Plastics packaging materials and unlaminated film and sheet manufacturing; 143 Unlaminated plastics profile shape manufacturing; 144 Plastics pipe and pipe fitting manufacturing; 145 Laminated plastics plate, sheet (except packaging), and shape manufacturing; 146 Polystyrene foam product manufacturing; 147 Urethane and other foam product (except polystyrene) manufacturing; 148 Plastics bottle manufacturing; 149 Other plastics product manufacturing; 150 Tire manufacturing; 151 Rubber and plastics hoses and belting manufacturing; 152 Other rubber product manufacturing; 153 Pottery, ceramics, and plumbing fixture manufacturing; 154 Brick, tile, and other structural clay product manufacturing; 155 Clay and nonclay refractory manufacturing; 156 Flat glass manufacturing; 157 Other pressed and blown glass and glassware manufacturing; 158 Glass container manufacturing; 159 Glass product manufacturing made of purchased glass; 160 Cement manufacturing; 161 Ready-mix concrete manufacturing; 162 Concrete pipe, brick, and block manufacturing; 163 Other concrete product manufacturing; 164 Lime and gypsum product manufacturing; 165 Abrasive product manufacturing; 166 Cut stone and stone product manufacturing; 167 Ground or treated mineral and earth manufacturing; 168 Mineral wool manufacturing; 169 Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing; 170 Iron and steel mills and ferroalloy manufacturing; 171 Steel product manufacturing from purchased steel; 172 Alumina refining and primary aluminum production; 173 Secondary smelting and alloying of aluminum; 174 Aluminum product manufacturing from purchased aluminum; 175 Primary smelting and refining of copper; 176 Primary smelting and refining of nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum); 177 Copper rolling, drawing, extruding and alloying; 178 Nonferrous metal (except copper and aluminum) rolling, drawing, extruding and alloying; 179 Ferrous metal foundries; 180 Nonferrous metal foundries; 181 All other forging, stamping, and sintering; 182 Custom roll forming; 183 Crown and closure manufacturing and metal stamping; 184 Cutlery, utensil, pot, and pan manufacturing; 185 Handtool manufacturing; 186 Plate work and fabricated structural product manufacturing; 187 Ornamental and architectural metal products manufacturing; 188 Power boiler and heat exchanger manufacturing; 189 Metal tank (heavy gauge) manufacturing; 190 Metal can, box, and other metal container (light gauge) manufacturing; 191 Ammunition manufacturing; 192 Arms, ordnance, and accessories manufacturing; 193 Hardware manufacturing; 194 Spring and wire product manufacturing; 195 Machine shops; 196 Turned product and screw, nut, and bolt manufacturing; 197 Coating, engraving, heat treating and allied activities; 198 Valve and fittings other than plumbing manufacturing; 199 Plumbing fixture fitting and trim manufacturing; 200 Ball and roller bearing manufacturing; 201 Fabricated pipe and pipe fitting manufacturing; 202 Other fabricated metal manufacturing; 203 Farm machinery and equipment manufacturing; 204 Lawn and garden equipment manufacturing; 205 Construction machinery manufacturing; 206 Mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing; 207 Other industrial machinery manufacturing; 208 Plastics and rubber industry machinery manufacturing; 209 Semiconductor machinery manufacturing; 210 Vending, commercial, industrial, and office machinery manufacturing; 211 Optical instrument and lens manufacturing; 212 Photographic and photocopying equipment manufacturing; 213 Other commercial and service industry machinery manufacturing; 214 Air purification and ventilation equipment manufacturing; 215 Heating equipment (except warm air furnaces) manufacturing; 216 Air conditioning, refrigeration, and warm air heating equipment manufacturing; 217 Industrial mold manufacturing; 218 Metal cutting and forming machine tool manufacturing; 219 Special tool, die, jig, and fixture manufacturing; 220 Cutting tool and machine tool accessory manufacturing; 221 Rolling mill and other metalworking machinery manufacturing; 222 Turbine and turbine generator set units manufacturing; 223 Speed changer, industrial high-speed drive, and gear manufacturing; 224 Mechanical power transmission equipment manufacturing; 225 Other engine equipment manufacturing; 226 Pump and pumping equipment manufacturing; 227 Air and gas compressor manufacturing; 228 Material handling equipment manufacturing; 229 Power-driven handtool manufacturing; 230 Other general purpose machinery manufacturing; 231 Packaging machinery manufacturing; 232 Industrial process furnace and oven manufacturing; 233 Fluid power process machinery manufacturing; 234 Electronic computer manufacturing; 235 Computer storage device manufacturing; 236 Computer terminals and other computer peripheral equipment manufacturing; 237 Telephone apparatus manufacturing; 238 Broadcast and wireless communications equipment manufacturing; 239 Other communications equipment manufacturing; 240 Audio and video equipment manufacturing; 241 Electron tube manufacturing; 242 Bare printed circuit board manufacturing; 243 Semiconductor and related device manufacturing; 244 Electronic capacitor, resistor, coil, transformer, and other inductor manufacturing; 245 Electronic connector manufacturing; 246 Printed circuit assembly (electronic assembly) manufacturing; 247 Other electronic component manufacturing; 248 Electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus manufacturing; 249 Search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing; 250 Automatic environmental control manufacturing; 251 Industrial process variable instruments manufacturing; 252 Totalizing fluid meters and counting devices manufacturing; 253 Electricity and signal testing instruments manufacturing; 254 Analytical laboratory instrument manufacturing; 255 Irradiation apparatus manufacturing; 256 Watch, clock, and other measuring and controlling device manufacturing; 257 Software, audio, and video media for reproduction; 258 Magnetic and optical recording media manufacturing; 259 Electric lamp bulb and part manufacturing; 260 Lighting fixture manufacturing; 261 Small electrical appliance manufacturing; 262 Household cooking appliance manufacturing; 263 Household refrigerator and home freezer manufacturing; 264 Household laundry equipment manufacturing; 265 Other major household appliance manufacturing; 266 Power, distribution, and specialty transformer manufacturing; 267 Motor and generator manufacturing; 268 Switchgear and switchboard apparatus manufacturing; 269 Relay and industrial control manufacturing; 270 Storage battery manufacturing; 271 Primary battery manufacturing; 272 Communication and energy wire and cable manufacturing; 273 Wiring device manufacturing; 274 Carbon and graphite product manufacturing; 275 All other miscellaneous electrical equipment and component manufacturing; 276 Automobile manufacturing; 277 Light truck and utility vehicle manufacturing; 278 Heavy duty truck manufacturing; 279 Motor vehicle body manufacturing; 280 Truck trailer manufacturing; 281 Motor home manufacturing; 282 Travel trailer and camper manufacturing; 283 Motor vehicle parts manufacturing; 284 Aircraft manufacturing; 285 Aircraft engine and engine parts manufacturing; 286 Other aircraft parts and auxiliary equipment manufacturing; 287 Guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing; 288 Propulsion units and parts for space vehicles and guided missiles manufacturing; 289 Railroad rolling stock manufacturing; 290 Ship building and repairing; 291 Boat building; 292 Motorcycle, bicycle, and parts manufacturing; 293 Military armored vehicle, tank, and tank component manufacturing; 294 All other transportation equipment manufacturing; 298 Metal and other household furniture (except wood) manufacturing; 299 Institutional furniture manufacturing; 302 Showcase, partition, shelving, and locker manufacturing; 303 Mattress manufacturing; 304 Blind and shade manufacturing; 305 Surgical and medical instrument, laboratory and medical instrument manufacturing; 306 Surgical appliance and supplies manufacturing; 307 Dental equipment and supplies manufacturing; 308 Ophthalmic goods manufacturing; 309 Dental laboratories manufacturing; 310 Jewelry and silverware manufacturing; 311 Sporting and athletic goods manufacturing; 312 Doll, toy, and game manufacturing; 313 Office supplies (except paper) manufacturing; 314 Sign manufacturing; 315 Gasket, packing, and sealing device manufacturing; 316 Musical instrument manufacturing; 317 All other miscellaneous manufacturing; 318 Broom, brush, and mop manufacturing

Wholesale trade

319 Wholesale trade businesses

Retail trade

320 Retail stores—Motor vehicle and parts; 321 Retail stores—Furniture and home furnishings; 322 Retail stores—Electronics and appliances; 323 Retail stores—Building material and garden supply; 324 Retail stores—Food and beverage; 325 Retail stores—Health and personal care; 326 Retail stores—Gasoline stations; 327 Retail stores—Clothing and clothing accessories; 328 Retail stores—Sporting goods, hobby, book and music; 329 Retail—General merchandise; 330 Retail stores—Miscellaneous; 331 Retail non-stores—Direct and electronic sales

Transportation &

warehousing

332 Transport by air; 333 Transport by rail; 334 Transport by water; 335 Transport by truck; 336 Transit and ground passenger transportation; 337 Transport by pipeline; 338 Scenic and sightseeing transportation and support activities for transportation; 339 Couriers and messengers; 340 Warehousing and storage

Information

341 Newspaper publishers; 342 Periodical publishers; 343 Book publishers; 344 Directory, mailing list, and other publishers; 345 Software publishers; 346 Motion picture and video industries; 347 Sound recording industries; 348 Radio and television broadcasting; 349 Cable and other subscription programming; 350 Internet publishing and broadcasting; 351 Telecommunications; 352 Data processing, hosting, ISP, web search portals and related services; 353 Other information services

Finance & insurance

354 Monetary authorities and depository credit intermediation activities; 355 Nondepository credit intermediation and related activities; 356 Securities, commodity contracts, investments, and related activities; 357 Insurance carriers; 358 Insurance agencies, brokerages, and related activities; 359 Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles

Real estate & rental

360 Real estate establishments; 361 Imputed rental activity for owner-occupied dwellings; 362 Automotive equipment rental and leasing; 363 General and consumer goods rental except video tapes and discs; 364 Video tape and disc rental; 365 Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment rental and leasing; 366 Lessors of nonfinancial intangible assets

Professional—scientific

& tech services

367 Legal services; 368 Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services; 369 Architectural, engineering, and related services; 370 Specialized design services; 371 Custom computer programming services; 372 Computer systems design services; 373 Other computer related services, including facilities management; 374 Management, scientific, and technical consulting services; 375 Environmental and other technical consulting services; 376 Scientific research and development services; 377 Advertising and related services; 378 Photographic services; 379 Veterinary services; 380 All other miscellaneous professional, scientific, and technical services

Management of

companies

381 Management of companies and enterprises

Administrative & waste services

382 Employment services; 383 Travel arrangement and reservation services; 384 Office administrative services; 385 Facilities support services; 386 Business support services; 387 Investigation and security services; 388 Services to buildings and dwellings; 389 Other support services; 390 Waste management and remediation services

Educational services

391 Private elementary and secondary schools; 392 Private junior colleges, colleges, universities, and professional schools; 393 Other private educational services

Health & social services

394 Offices of physicians, dentists, and other health practitioners; 395 Home health care services; 396 Medical and diagnostic labs and outpatient and other ambulatory care services; 397 Private hospitals; 398 Nursing and residential care facilities; 399 Child day care services; 400 Individual and family services; 401 Community food, housing, and other relief services, including rehabilitation services

Arts—entertainment & recreation

402 Performing arts companies; 403 Spectator sports companies; 404 Promoters of performing arts and sports and agents for public figures; 405 Independent artists, writers, and performers; 406 Museums, historical sites, zoos, and parks; 407 Fitness and recreational sports centers; 408 Bowling centers; 409 Amusement parks, arcades, and gambling industries; 410 Other amusement and recreation industries

Accommodation & food services

411 Hotels and motels, including casino hotels; 412 Other accommodations; 413 Food services and drinking places

Other services

414 Automotive repair and maintenance, except car washes; 415 Car washes; 416 Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance; 417 Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance; 418 Personal and household goods repair and maintenance; 419 Personal care services; 420 Death care services; 421 Dry-cleaning and laundry services; 422 Other personal services; 423 Religious organizations; 424 Grantmaking, giving, and social advocacy organizations; 425 Civic, social, professional, and similar organizations; 426 Private household operations; 433 *Not an industry (Used and secondhand goods); 434 *Not an industry (Scrap); 435 *Not an industry (Rest of the world adjustment); 436 *Not an industry (Noncomparable imports)

Government & non-NAICs

427 US Postal Service; 428 Federal electric utilities; 429 Other federal government enterprises; 430 State and local government passenger transit; 431 State and local government electric utilities; 432 Other state and local government enterprises; 437 * Employment & payroll only (state & local government, non-education; 438 * Employment & payroll only (state & local government, education); 439 * Employment & payroll only (federal government, non-military); 440 * Employment & payroll only (federal government, military)

 

The information given here is for educational purposes only. References to commercial products, trade names, or suppliers are made with the understanding that no endorsement is implied and that no discrimination against other products or suppliers is intended.

Publication 2879 (POD-04-19)

By James E. Henderson, Associate Extension Professor, Forestry; James N. Barnes, Assistant Extension Professor, Agricultural Economics; Lawrence L. Falconer, Extension Professor, Delta Research and Extension Center; and Dave Sites, Research Associate III, Agricultural Economics.

Copyright 2019 by Mississippi State University. All rights reserved. This publication may be copied and distributed without alteration for nonprofit educational purposes provided that credit is given to the Mississippi State University Extension Service.

Produced by Agricultural Communications.

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Extension Service of Mississippi State University, cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture. Published in furtherance of Acts of Congress, May 8 and June 30, 1914. GARY B. JACKSON, Director

Department: Agricultural Economics, Delta Research and Extension Center, Forestry

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