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Pickles, Relishes, Jellies, Jams, and Preserves

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Publication Number: P0220
Updated: August 1, 2017
View as PDF: P0220.pdf

Pickled products truly add spice to meals and snacks. The skillful blending of spices, sugar, and vinegar with fruits and vegetables gives crisp, firm texture and pungent, sweet-sour flavor.

Pickles and relishes have some nutritious value, contain little or no fat, and, except for the sweet type, are low in calories.

Jelly, jam, conserves, or preserves also add zest to meals. Most of these fruit products provide a good way to use fruit that may not be good for canning or freezing—the largest or smallest fruits and berries and those that are irregularly shaped.

Basically, these products are much alike. All of them are fruit preserved by means of sugar and all are jellied to some extent. Their individual characteristics depend on the kind of fruit used and the way it is prepared, the proportions of different ingredients in the mixture, and the method of cooking.

Although food markets offer a wide variety of pickles, relishes, jellies, jams, conserves, and preserves, many homemakers like to prepare their own products when garden vegetables and fresh fruits are in abundant supply. This publication includes recipes for some of the all-time favorite pickles, relishes, jellies, jams, and preserves.

Pickles and Relishes

French Sour Pickles

2 lb (3-inch) pickling cucumbers

3 tbsp pickling salt

2 qt water

3 c white vinegar, 5% acidity

4 small white onions, peeled

4 small garlic cloves

4 tsp mustard seeds

Wash cucumbers; slice ⅛ inch off each end. Place cucumbers in large bowl. Sprinkle with salt and cover with water. Let stand 24 hours; drain well.

Heat vinegar in medium saucepan to boiling.

Pack cucumbers in 4 hot, sterilized pint jars. Place 1 onion, 1 garlic clove, and 1 tsp mustard seeds in each jar. Pour boiling vinegar over cucumbers, filling to within ¼ inch from the top. Adjust lids.

Process in boiling water 10 minutes. Start to count processing time when water in the canner returns to boiling.

Remove jars. Cool on wire racks 12 to 24 hours. Check jars for airtight seal. Yield: 4 pints.

Chowchow

1 medium cabbage, chopped (2 qt)

6 medium onions, chopped

6 green peppers, coarsely chopped

6 sweet red peppers, coarsely chopped

1 qt chopped green tomatoes

¼ c pickling salt

2 tbsp prepared mustard

6 c vinegar, 5% acidity

2½ c sugar

1½ tsp ground turmeric

1 tsp ground ginger

2 tbsp mustard seeds

1 tbsp mixed pickling spices

 

Combine cabbage, onion, peppers, tomatoes, and salt in large bowl. Cover; let stand overnight. Drain.

Mix mustard with a little vinegar in kettle; add remaining vinegar, sugar, turmeric, ginger, mustard seeds, and pickling spices; simmer 20 minutes. Add vegetables; simmer 10 minutes. Immediately ladle into 7 hot, sterilized pint jars, filling to within ¼ inch from the top. Adjust lids.

Process in boiling water 5 minutes. Start to count the time when water in canner returns to boiling.

Remove jars. Cool on wire racks 12 to 14 hours. Check jars for airtight seal. Yield: 7 pints.

 

Hamburger Dill Chips

4 lb (4-inch) pickling cucumbers

4½ c water

1 qt white vinegar, 5% acidity

6 tbsp pickling salt

16 heads fresh dill

4 tsp mustard seeds

16 peppercorns

 

Wash cucumbers; slice 1/8 inch off each end. Cut cucumbers into ¼ inch crosswise slices.

Combine water, vinegar, and salt in large saucepan; bring to boiling.

Pack cucumbers in 8 hot pint jars. Add 2 dill heads, ½ tsp mustard seeds, and 2 peppercorns to each jar. Pour boiling liquid over cucumbers, filling to within ¼ inch from the top. Adjust lids.

Process in boiling water bath 15 minutes. Start to count processing time as soon as jars are placed into actively boiling water.

Remove jars. Cool on wire racks 12 to 24 hours. Check jars for airtight seals. Yield: 8 pints.

 

Sweet Dills

4 lb (3- to 5-inch) pickling cucumbers

6 c vinegar, 5% acidity

6 c sugar

6 tbsp pickling salt

1½ tsp celery seeds

1½ tsp mustard seeds

2 large onions, thinly sliced

16 heads fresh dill

 

Wash cucumbers; slice 1/8 inch off each end. Cut cucumbers in ¼-inch crosswise slices.

Combine vinegar, sugar, salt, celery, and mustard seeds in large kettle. Bring mixture to boiling.

Place 2 slices onion and 1 dill head in each of 8 hot pint jars. Pack cucumber slices into jars. Place 1 slice onion and 1 head dill on top. Pour boiling liquid over cucumbers, filling to within ¼ inch from the top. Adjust lids.

Process in boiling water 15 minutes. Start to count processing time as soon as jars are placed into actively boiling water.

Remove jars. Cool on wire racks 12 to 24 hours. Check jars for airtight seal. Yield: 8 pints.

 

Beet Pickles

1 qt quartered, sliced, or small whole beets

2 c vinegar, 5% acidity

1 c sugar

1 tsp salt

 

Select and wash beets. Trim off tops leaving 1-inch stem. Boil until skin slips off easily. Skin and trim. Leave small beets whole; cut others in slices, halves, or quarters.

Pack hot to within ½ inch of top of clean, hot jars. Cover with boiling liquid made from vinegar, sugar, and salt. Adjust lids. Process for 30 minutes in boiling water. Cool and store. Yield: 2 to 3 pints.

 

Pickled Peaches

3 qt sugar

2 qt vinegar, 5% acidity

7 (2-inch) pieces stick cinnamon

2 tbsp cloves, whole

16 lb (about 11 qt) peaches, small or medium

 

Combine sugar, vinegar, stick cinnamon, and cloves. (Cloves may be put in a clean cloth, tied with a string, and removed after cooking, if not desired in packed product.) Bring to a boil and let simmer covered, about 30 minutes.

Wash peaches and remove skins; dip fruit in boiling water for 1 minute, then quickly in cold water for easy peeling. To prevent pared peaches from darkening during preparation, immediately put them into cold water containing 2 tablespoons each of salt and vinegar per gallon. Drain just before using.

Add peaches to the boiling syrup, enough for 2 to 3 quarts at a time, and heat for about 5 minutes. Pack hot peaches into clean, hot jars. Continue heating in syrup and packing peaches into jars. Add 1 piece of stick cinnamon and 2 to 3 whole cloves (if desired) to each jar. Cover peaches with boiling syrup to ½ inch of top of jar. Adjust jar lids.

Process in boiling water for 20 minutes. Start to count processing time after water in canner returns to boiling. Remove jars; set jars upright, several inches apart on a wire rack to cool. Yield: 7 quarts.

 

Bread and Butter Pickles

4 qt cucumbers, sliced

1½ c onions, sliced

2 large garlic cloves

⅓ c salt

2 qt ice, crushed or cubed

4½ c sugar

1½ tsp turmeric

1½ tsp celery seeds

2 tbsp mustard seeds

3 c white vinegar, 5% acidity

 

Wash cucumbers thoroughly, using a vegetable brush; drain on rack. Slice unpeeled cucumbers into 1/8-inch to ¼-inch slices; discard ends. Add onions and garlic.

Add salt and mix thoroughly; cover with crushed ice or ice cubes; let stand 3 hours. Drain thoroughly; remove garlic cloves.

Combine sugar, spices, and vinegar; heat just to boiling. Add drained cucumber and onion slices and heat 5 minutes.

Pack hot pickles loosely into clean, hot pint jars to ½ inch of top. Adjust jar lids.

Process in boiling water for 5 minutes. Start to count processing time as soon as water in canner returns to boiling. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 7 pints.

NOTE: Sugar may be reduced to 4 cups if a less-sweet pickle is desired.

 

Sweet Gherkins

5 qt cucumbers, 1½ to 3 inches long

½ c pure granulated salt

8 c sugar

6 c vinegar, 5% acidity

¾ tsp turmeric

2 tsp celery seeds

2 tsp whole mixed pickling spice

8 (1-inch) pieces stick cinnamon

½ tsp fennel (if desired)

2 tsp vanilla

 

First Day:

Morning—Wash cucumbers thoroughly; scrub with vegetable brush. Drain cucumbers; place in large container and cover with boiling water.

Afternoon (6 to 8 hours later)—Drain; cover with fresh, boiling water.

Second Day:

Morning—Drain; cover with fresh, boiling water.

Afternoon—Drain; add salt; cover with fresh, boiling water.

Third Day:

Morning—Drain; prick cucumbers in several places with table fork. Make syrup of 3 cups of the sugar and 3 cups of the vinegar; add turmeric and spices. Heat to boiling and pour over cucumbers. (Cucumbers will be partially covered at this point.)

Afternoon—Drain syrup into pan; add 2 cups of the sugar and 2 cups of the vinegar to syrup. Heat to boiling and pour over pickles.

Fourth Day:

Morning—Drain syrup into pan; add 2 cups of the sugar and 1 cup of the vinegar to syrup. Heat to boiling and pour over pickles.

Afternoon—Drain syrup into pan; add remaining 1 cup sugar and the vanilla to syrup; heat to boiling. Pack pickles into clean, hot pint jars and cover with boiling syrup to ½ inch of top of jar. Adjust jar lids.

 

Process for 5 minutes in boiling water. Start to count processing time as soon as water returns to boiling. Remove jars. Set jars upright, several inches apart, on a wire rack to cool. Yield: 7 to 8 pints.

 

Sweet Pickle Sticks

6 pt cucumbers (about 24 medium)

boiling water

3¾ c vinegar, 5% acidity

4 c sugar

3 tbsp salt

4 tsp celery seeds

¾ tsp mustard seeds

4 tsp turmeric

 

Select fresh cucumbers. Wash and cut into sticks. Pour boiling water over the sticks and let stand 12 to 14 hours, or overnight. Drain and pack into clean jars. Combine vinegar, sugar, salt, celery seeds, mustard seeds, and turmeric. Boil mixture for 5 minutes. Pour boiling hot mixture over cucumbers in jars, leaving ½-inch headspace.

Adjust lids. Process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 6 pints.

 

Quick Dill Pickles

4 lb (4-inch) pickling cucumbers (32 to 40 cucumbers)

⅓ c canning or pickling salt

4 c water

2½ c vinegar, 5% acidity

24 to 32 peppercorns

½ c dill seeds or 12 to 16 heads fresh dill weed

 

Wash cucumbers. Cut 1/16-inch slice off blossom ends. Slice or strip if desired. Place in bowl and cover with 2 inches of crushed or cubed ice. Refrigerate 3 to 4 hours.

Drain. Combine salt, water, and vinegar, and heat to boiling. Pack cucumbers in sterilized pint jars, leaving 1-inch headspace. Add 4 peppercorns and 1 tbsp dill seeds or 2 heads fresh dill weed to each jar.

Pour vinegar solution over cucumbers, leaving ½-inch headspace. Adjust lids. Process 10 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 6 to 8 pints.

 

Spicy Eggs

1½ c apple cider

1 c white vinegar, 5% acidity

2 tsp salt

1 tsp pickling spice

1 garlic clove, peeled

½ onion, sliced

½ tsp mustard seeds

1 dozen medium-sized hard-cooked eggs, peeled

 

Combine all ingredients except eggs. Heat mixture to near boiling and simmer for 5 minutes. Place hard-cooked eggs in a quart jar. Pour hot mixture over eggs. Cover and refrigerate to season. Drain before serving. Allow 2 to 8 weeks for eggs to season. Store in refrigerator. Yield: 1 quart.

 

Green Tomato Pickles

1 gal green tomatoes

6 large onions

½ c salt

1 tbsp whole black peppercorns

1 tbsp whole cloves

1 tbsp whole allspice

1 tbsp crushed celery seeds

1 tbsp mustard seeds

1 tbsp ground mustard

½ lemon

3 pods red pepper

3 c vinegar, 5% acidity

3 c brown sugar

 

Thinly slice tomatoes and onions. Sprinkle ½ cup salt over them and let stand overnight in a crock or enamel vessel. Next morning, freshen in cold water for 1 hour.

Tie the black pepper, cloves, allspice, celery seeds, mustard seeds, and ground mustard in a cheesecloth bag. Slice the lemon and chop 2 pepper pods very fine. Drain tomatoes and onions well. Add all seasoning except 1 pepper pod to the vinegar and sugar; then add tomatoes and onions. Cook for 30 minutes, stirring gently at intervals to prevent burning. Remove spice bag.

Pack in jars and garnish with slender strips of the red pepper, placing vertically on the side of jars half-way from top to bottom. Leave ½-inch headspace. Adjust lids. Process 15 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store.

 

Spiced Beets, Green Beans, or Carrots

¼ tsp salt

¾ tsp allspice

¾ tsp cloves

¼ stick cinnamon

¼ piece mace

1½ tsp celery seeds

2 c cider vinegar, 5% acidity

1 c sugar

green beans, beets, or carrots (about 2 pt)

 

Tie salt and spices in thin cloth bag. Boil vinegar, sugar, and spices for 15 minutes. Boil a quart jar for 15 minutes. Remove jar from water and pour in spiced vinegar mixture. Adjust the lid; set aside for 2 weeks.

Remove the spice bag. Cook fresh beans, beets, or carrots (about 2 pints) until tender, but firm. Cool. Peel beets. (You can use canned vegetables and omit this step.)

Heat the spiced vinegar and add ½ cup of the liquid in which the vegetables were cooked. Add vegetables and simmer for 15 minutes. Pack into hot jars, being sure the spiced vinegar covers the vegetables. Remove air bubbles.

Adjust lids and process 10 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 2½ pints.

 

Cauliflower Pickles

3 qt (about 3 medium heads) cauliflower florets

2 c onion, sliced

1 c red pepper, cut in strips

¼ c salt

2 qt (2 trays) ice cubes

1 qt vinegar, white, 5% acidity

2 c sugar

1 tbsp mustard seeds

1 tbsp celery seeds

1 tsp turmeric

1 hot red pepper
 

Wash cauliflower; divide into florets. Combine cauliflower, sliced onion, red pepper strips, and salt. Cover with ice and let stand 3 to 4 hours. Drain well.

Combine remaining ingredients. Bring to a boil. Add vegetables; boil 10 minutes or until vegetables are tender-crisp.

Remove hot red pepper from vegetable mixture. Pack hot vegetables into hot pint jars. Cover with boiling liquid to ½ inch from top of jar. Cut hot red pepper into 5 pieces and add one piece to each jar. Adjust jar lids.

Process 5 minutes in boiling water. Start to count processing time as soon as water in canner returns to boiling. Remove jars.

Set jars upright on a wire rack or folded towel to cool. Place them several inches apart. Yield: 5 pints.

 

Pearl Onion Pickles

4 qt tiny onions

boiling water

1 c salt

2 c sugar

2 tbsp prepared horseradish*

3 to 4 tbsp mustard seeds*

2 qt vinegar (white vinegar will help retain white color), 5% acidity

7 small bay leaves

7 small hot, red peppers

 

Select fresh, tender onions. Cover with boiling water and let stand for 2 minutes. Drain; dip at once into cold water and peel. Sprinkle onions with salt and add cold water to cover (about 2 quarts water to 1 cup salt). Let stand at least 12 hours, or overnight. Drain off salt water; rinse and drain thoroughly. Combine sugar, horseradish, mustard seeds, and vinegar. Simmer 15 minutes.

Pack onions into jars, leaving ½-inch headspace. To each jar, add 1 bay leaf and 1 pepper. Pour boiling hot vinegar mixture over onions. Adjust lids. Process pints 10 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 7 pints.

* You may substitute 3½ tablespoons of mixed pickling spices for the horseradish and mustard seeds.

 

Pickled Okra

3 lb okra, whole

6 hot red or green peppers

6 garlic cloves

1 qt vinegar, 5% acidity

1⅓ c water

½ c salt

1 tbsp mustard seeds

 

Wash okra. Trim stems; do not cut into pods. Pack okra into clean, hot pint jars; add hot pepper and garlic clove to each jar.

Bring remaining ingredients to a boil. Cover okra with hot liquid, filling to ½ inch from top. Adjust jar lids.

Process 10 minutes in boiling water. Start to count processing time as soon as water in canner returns to boiling. Remove jars.

Set jars upright on a wire rack or folded towel to cool. Place them several inches apart. Yield: 6 pints.

 

Sweet Party Pickles

1 qt commercial dill pickles

1 qt commercial sour pickles

Mixture:

4 c sugar

2 tbsp whole allspice

2 or more cloves of garlic (sliced)

 

Drain pickles and slice (or buy sliced hamburger dills). Put in 2½ quart jar. Add alternate layers of pickles and sugar/spice mixture.

These pickles will make their own syrup. Store in refrigerator.

 

Pickled Jalapeño Peppers

jalapeno peppers (about 1 pound)

1 c vinegar, 5% acidity

¼ c water

1 tsp salt

1 tsp mixed pickling spices

 

Wash peppers and pack tightly into hot jar, leaving ½-inch headspace. Combine vinegar, water, salt, and pickling spice; heat to boiling. Pour boiling hot liquid over peppers to ½ inch from jar top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims, adjust lids, and process 10 minutes in a boiling water bath.

Caution: Wear plastic or rubber gloves and do not touch your face while handling or cutting hot peppers. If you do not wear gloves, wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching your face or eyes.

 

Horseradish Relish

1 c grated horseradish

½ c white vinegar, 5% acidity

¼ tsp salt

 

Wash horseradish roots thoroughly and remove the brown, outer skin. You may find a vegetable peeler useful in removing the outer skin. Grate or cut the roots into small cubes and put through a food chopper or a blender.

Combine ingredients. Pack into clean jars. Seal tightly. Store in refrigerator. Yield: about 1 cup.

 

Mild Chili Sauce

12 red ripe peeled tomatoes

6 medium onions, chopped

6 green peppers, chopped

3 red sweet peppers, chopped

1 (3-inch) stick cinnamon

1 tsp whole cloves

1 tsp whole allspice

1 tbsp salt

1 pt cider vinegar, 5% acidity

1 c sugar

 

To peel tomatoes, dip them in boiling water, then quickly in cold water to loosen skins. Peel.

Finely chop raw tomatoes, onions, and peppers. Tie cinnamon, cloves, and allspice into a clean white cloth to make a spice bag. Add spice bag to tomatoes, onions, and peppers and simmer for 30 to 40 minutes. Remove spice bag. Add salt, vinegar, and sugar to tomato mixture; boil rapidly for 5 minutes.

Pour hot chili sauce into clean, hot pint jars. Seal with properly prepared canning lids. Process in boiled water for 15 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store.

To freeze, cool quickly by lowering container of chili sauce into sink of ice water. Pack sauce into moisture-vapor-proof, rigid containers, leaving 1 inch of headspace, and freeze at 0°F or lower. Yield: 2 pints.

 

 

Tomato Ketchup

2½ qt ripe tomatoes (measure after removing skins, seeds, core, green parts)

1 (3-inch) piece stick cinnamon

2 tsp mustard seeds

3 tsp celery seeds

1 tsp whole cloves

¾ c finely chopped onion

1 large garlic clove, chopped (optional)

1 c cider vinegar, 5% acidity

½ c sugar

1¼ tsp salt

1 tsp paprika

⅛ tsp cayenne pepper (or to taste)

 

Simmer tomatoes for about 20 minutes and press through a colander, food mill, or fine sieve to remove seeds. If you have a blender, blend cooked tomatoes before straining to get more pulp. Heat strained tomato pulp to a boil and continue boiling until the volume is reduced by about half. Stir often to prevent sticking and scorching.

Place cinnamon stick, mustard seeds, celery seeds, and whole cloves on a thin, clean white cloth. Tie cloth to make spice bag. Add spice bag to boiling pulp and simmer for 30 to 40 minutes. Remove bag. Tie onion and garlic, if used, in a thin cloth bag and add to pulp when you add spices. Cook for 20 minutes and remove this bag.

Add the mixture of vinegar, sugar, salt, paprika, and cayenne pepper to the tomato-spice mixture. Boil rapidly, stirring constantly, from 5 to no more than 10 minutes.

Pour hot catsup into clean, hot pint jars, leaving 1-inch headspace. Seal with properly prepared canning lids. Process in pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure for 10 minutes. Yield: 2 pints.

 

Hot Squash Relish

4 lb (7 pt) diced squash

2 c green bell peppers, diced

1 large bunch (1 qt) celery, diced

1 c onion, diced

4 c vinegar, 5% acidity

1½ c sugar

2 tbsp salt

2 tsp celery seeds

3–4 hot peppers, medium size*

2 tbsp powdered mustard

1 tsp turmeric

* You may substitute ¼ to ½ teaspoon crushed red pepper to each pint of vegetables for hot peppers; start with ¼ teaspoon and add as desired.

 

Prepare vegetables, discarding leaves from celery.

Combine peppers, celery, and onion with vinegar, sugar, salt, celery seeds, and 3 pods of hot pepper.** Heat mixture to boiling; boil 5 minutes. Stir in squash, mustard, and turmeric; return to boiling and count 5 minutes.

Spoon into clean pint jars; adjust lids. Process 15 minutes in boiling water. Begin counting time as soon as all jars are in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store.

**Add 2 pods of hot pepper. Heat mixture; taste for hotness, and add the third pod of pepper if desired.

 

Pepper-Onion Relish

1 qt onions

1 pt sweet red peppers, finely chopped

1 pt green peppers, finely chopped

1 c sugar

1 qt vinegar, 5% acidity

4 tsp salt

 

Combine all ingredients and bring to a boil. Cook until slightly thickened (about 45 minutes), stirring occasionally. Pack boiling hot relish into clean, hot jars; fill to ½ inch of top of jar. Seal tightly. Store in refrigerator.

If extended storage without refrigeration is desired, this product should be processed in a boiling water bath. Pack the boiling hot relish into clean, hot jars to ½ inch of top of jar. Adjust jar lids.

Process in boiling water for 5 minutes. Start to count processing time when water in canner returns to boiling.

Remove jars. Set jars upright, several inches apart, on a wire rack to cool. Yield: 5 half-pints.

 

Hot Dog Relish

3 carrots, pared

3 sweet red peppers, cored and seeded

2 qt cucumbers, chopped

2 qt green tomatoes, peeled

2 qt onions, pared

½ c salt

2 tbsp mixed pickling spices

3 c sugar

½ tsp cayenne pepper

1½ c cider vinegar, 5% acidity

Chop or grind carrots, peppers, cucumbers, tomatoes, and onions. Sprinkle with salt and let stand overnight in the refrigerator. Drain.

Tie spices loosely in a clean, thin, white cloth and add to vegetables. Simmer 30 to 45 minutes, stirring frequently to prevent sticking. Remove spice bag. Add sugar, cayenne pepper, and vinegar; simmer 5 to 10 minutes.

Pour hot relish into clean, hot pint jars; seal with properly prepared lids. Process in a pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure for 10 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 8 to 10 pints.

 

Bread and Butter Pickled Squash

1 gal (4¼ lb) sliced squash

2 green bell peppers, diced

5 medium onions, diced

½ c salt

5 c vinegar, 5% acidity

4½ c sugar

1 tsp ground mustard

1½ tsp turmeric

1 tsp celery seeds

20 whole cloves (in spice bag)

 

Select small- to medium-sized yellow summer squash, about 1 to 1½ inch in diameter. Cut squash into ¼-inch slices and combine with peppers and onions. Stir in ½ cup salt; let stand 3 hours. Drain. Mix vinegar with sugar and spices; heat to boiling. Remove spice bag. Pack squash, peppers, and onions into pint jars. Cover with boiling vinegar solution. Adjust lids. Process in boiling water 10 minutes. Begin counting time as soon as all the hot jars are placed in actively boiling water.

 

Jellies, Jams, and Preserves

 

Crabapple Jelly (without added pectin)

4 c crabapple juice (takes about 3 lb fruit, 3 c water)

4 c sugar

 

To prepare juice, select firm, crisp crabapples, about ¼ underripe, the rest fully ripe. Sort, wash, and remove stem and blossom ends; do not pare or core. Cut crabapples into small pieces. Add water, cover, and bring to boil on high heat. Reduce heat and simmer for 20 to 25 minutes, or until crabapples are soft. Extract juice.

To make jelly, measure juice into kettle. Add sugar and stir well. Boil over high heat to 8°F above the boiling point of water (220°F) or until mixture sheets from a spoon.

Remove from heat; skim off foam quickly. Pour jelly immediately into hot containers, seal and process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 7 6-oz glasses.

 

Orange-Grapefruit Jelly

(made from frozen concentrated juice)

3¼ c sugar

1 c water

3 tbsp lemon juice

½ bottle liquid pectin

1 (6-oz) can frozen concentrated orange-grapefruit juice (3/4 c)

 

Stir sugar into water. Place on high heat and, stirring constantly, bring quickly to a full rolling boil that cannot be stirred down. Add lemon juice. Boil hard for 1 minute.

Remove from heat. Stir in pectin. Add thawed, concentrated orange-grapefruit juice and mix well.

Pour immediately into hot containers, seal and process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 5 6-oz glasses.

 

Plum Jelly (without added pectin)

4 c plum juice (takes about 3½ lb plums, 1½ c water)

3 c sugar

 

To prepare juice, select about ¼ underripe and 3/4 ripe plums. Sort, wash, and cut into pieces; do not peel or pit. Crush fruit, add water, cover, and bring to boil on high heat. Reduce heat; simmer 15 to 20 minutes, or until fruit is soft. Extract juice.

To make jelly, measure juice into a kettle. Add sugar and stir well. Boil over high heat to 8°F above the boiling point of water (220°F), or until mixture sheets from spoon.

Remove from heat; skim off foam quickly. Pour jelly immediately into hot containers, seal and process. Yield: 5 6-oz glasses.

 

Grape Jelly (without added pectin)

4 c grape juice (takes about 3½ lb Concord grapes, ½ c water)

3 c sugar

 

To prepare juice, select about ¼ underripe and ¾ fully ripe grapes. Sort, wash, and remove stems from grapes. Crush grapes, add water, cover, and bring to boil on high heat. Reduce heat and simmer for 10 minutes. Extract juice.

To prevent formation of tartrate crystals in the jelly, let juice stand in a cool place overnight, then strain through two thicknesses of damp cheesecloth to remove crystals.

To make jelly, measure juice into a kettle. Add sugar and stir well. Boil over high heat to 8°F above the boiling point of water (220°F), or until jelly mixture sheets from a spoon.

Remove from heat; skim off foam quickly. Pour jelly immediately into hot containers, seal, and process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 5 6-oz glasses.

 

Pepper Jelly (with liquid pectin)

Note: Green or red jelly can be made. If green is desired, use sweet green peppers and green food coloring. If red jelly is desired, use sweet red peppers and red food coloring.

4 large sweet green or red peppers, seeded and chopped

1 small hot red pepper, seeded and chopped

6½ c sugar

1½ c cider vinegar, 5% acidity

1 (6-oz) bottle liquid pectin

green or red food coloring

 

Combine peppers, sugar, and vinegar in a heavy kettle. Heat to boiling. Boil 10 minutes.

Remove from heat; allow to stand for 15 minutes. Return to heat and boil 2 minutes. Remove from heat.

Strain out chopped peppers. Stir in pectin. Stir, skimming if necessary, 5 minutes. Tint a pale green or red with several drops of food coloring. Pour jelly immediately into hot sterilized jars; seal and process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 9 8-oz glasses.

 

Clear Hot Pepper Jelly (with powdered pectin)

1 c ground bell pepper (including juice)

2 tbsp coarsely chopped jalapeño peppers, ground

3/4 c cider vinegar, 5% acidity

½ c water

pinch of salt

 

Wash and remove seeds from fresh peppers, or use frozen ones. Grind or process with steel blade in food processor. Add vinegar, water, and salt and boil about 5 minutes. Cool and strain, pressing out all the juice. Measure liquid, adding water to make 2 cups total.

 

For jelly use:

2 c pepper liquid

2 tbsp strained lemon juice

1 box powdered pectin

2½ c sugar

2 to 3 drops green food coloring

 

In a medium saucepan (about 4-quart size), add pepper juice, lemon juice, powdered pectin, and food coloring. Mix well. Bring quickly to a hard boil, stirring occasionally. At once, add sugar, stirring well. Bring quickly to a full rolling boil (that foams near the top and cannot be stirred down). Boil 1 minute, stirring constantly. Remove from heat; skim off foam with a metal spoon. Pour at once into sterilized half-pint canning jars, leaving 1/8-inch headspace. Wipe sealing edge clean with a damp cloth. Seal and process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 2 to 3 half-pint jars.

 

Berry Jelly*

3 c berry juice (fresh or frozen)

4½ c sugar

1 box powdered pectin

½ c water

 

Extract fresh juice by pressing fruit in damp jelly bag or fruit press. Re-strain pressed juice through damp jelly bag. Combine 1¼ cup berry juice with sugar. Stir thoroughly. Add the pectin slowly to the water. Heat almost to boiling, stirring constantly. Pour the pectin mixture into remaining 1¾ cup berry juice. Stir until pectin is completely dissolved. Let the pectin mixture stand 15 minutes. Stir occasionally.

Mix juice mixture with pectin mixture. Stir until all sugar is dissolved. Pour into containers. Cover with a tight lid. Let stand at room temperature until set, from 6 hours to overnight. Store in refrigerator or freeze. Yield: 7 half-pint jars.

*Uncooked jams and jellies must be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. Store no longer than 3 weeks in refrigerator or a year in freezer. Freezer storage is best for maintaining natural color as well as flavor. If kept at room temperature, uncooked jams or jellies will mold or ferment in a short time. Once a container is opened, use within a few days.

 

Berry Jam*

2 c crushed strawberries or blackberries (about 1 quart berries)

4 c sugar

1 package powdered pectin

1 c water

 

To prepare fruit, sort and wash fully ripe berries. Drain. Remove caps and stems; crush berries.

To make jam, place prepared berries in a large mixing bowl. Add sugar, mix well, and let stand for 20 minutes, stirring occasionally.

Dissolve pectin in water and boil 1 minute. Add pectin solution to berry and sugar mixture; stir for 2 minutes.

Pour jam into freezer containers or canning jars, leaving ½-inch space at the top. Cover containers and let stand at room temperature for 24 hours or until jam has set. Store in refrigerator or freezer. Yield: 5 or 6 half-pint jars.

Note: If jam is too firm, stir to soften. If it tends to separate, stir to blend. If it is too soft, bring it to a boil. It will thicken on cooling.

*Uncooked jams and jellies must be stored in the refrigerator or freezer. Store no longer than 3 weeks in refrigerator or a year in freezer. Freezer storage is best for maintaining natural color as well as flavor. If kept at room temperature, uncooked jams or jellies will mold or ferment in a short time. Once a container is opened, use within a few days.

 

Strawberry Jam (without added pectin)

4 c crushed strawberries

4 c sugar

 

To prepare fruit, sort and wash berries; remove stems and caps. Crush the berries.

To make jam, measure crushed strawberries into a kettle. Add sugar and stir well. Boil rapidly, stirring constantly, to 9°F above the boiling point of water (221°F), or until the mixture thickens. Remove from heat; skim. Fill and seal containers. Process for 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 4 half-pint jars.

 

Blackberry Jam (without added pectin)

Follow directions for strawberry jam without added pectin. Put very seedy blackberries through a sieve or food mill.

 

Peach Jam (with liquid pectin)

4¼ c crushed peaches

¼ c lemon juice

7 c sugar

½ bottle liquid pectin

 

To prepare fruit, sort and wash ripe peaches. Remove stems, skins, and pits. Crush peaches.

To make jam, measure crushed peaches into a kettle. Add lemon juice and sugar. Stir well. Place on high heat and, stirring constantly, bring quickly to a full boil with bubbles over entire surface. Boil hard for 1 minute, stirring constantly.

Remove from heat and stir in pectin. Skim. Fill and seal containers. Process for 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 8 half-pint jars.

 

Elderberry Jam

2 qt crushed elderberries

¼ c vinegar

6 c sugar

 

Combine berries, vinegar, and sugar. Bring slowly to a boil, stirring occasionally until sugar dissolves. Cook rapidly until thick. As mixture thickens, stir frequently to prevent sticking. Pour boiling hot mixture into sterilized jars. Adjust lids. Process in boiling water 5 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 6 half-pint jars.

 

Spiced Blueberry-Peach Jam (without added pectin)

4 c chopped or ground peaches (about 4 lb peaches)

4 c blueberries (about 1 qt fresh blueberries or 2 10-ounce packages of unsweetened frozen blueberries)

2 tbsp lemon juice

½ c water

5½ c sugar

1 stick cinnamon

½ tsp salt

½ tsp whole clove

¼ tsp whole allspice

 

To prepare fruit, sort and wash fully ripe peaches; peel and remove pits. Chop or grind peaches.

Sort, wash, and remove any stems from fresh blueberries. Thaw frozen berries.

To make jam, measure fruits into a kettle; add lemon juice and water. Cover, bring to a boil, and simmer for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally.

Add sugar and salt; stir well. Add spices tied in cheesecloth. Boil rapidly, stirring constantly, to 9°F above the boiling point of water (221°F) or until the mixture thickens.

Remove from heat; take out spices. Skim. Fill and seal containers.

Process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 6 or 7 half-pint jars.

 

Fig Jam

2 qt figs

4 c sugar

¼ c lemon juice

 

Wash, stem, and peel figs. Crush or chop figs. Add sugar. Cook slowly, stirring often until the mixture is thick (about ½ hour). Add lemon juice and stir. Pour into hot, sterilized jars. Seal immediately. Process in boiling water 5 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 4 half-pint jars.

 

Strawberry Preserves

6 c prepared strawberries

4½ c sugar

 

To prepare fruit, select large, firm, tart strawberries. Wash and drain berries; remove caps.

To make preserves, combine prepared fruit and sugar in alternate layers and let stand for 8 to 10 hours, or overnight in the refrigerator or other cool place.

Heat fruit mixture to boiling, stirring gently. Boil rapidly, stirring as needed to prevent sticking.

Cook to 9°F above the boiling point of water (221°F), or until the syrup is somewhat thick (about 15 to 20 minutes). Remove from heat; skim.

Fill jars and adjust lids. Process in boiling water for 5 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 4 half-pint jars.

 

 

Pear Preserves

1½ c sugar

3 c water

8–10 medium pears (about 3 lb before preparing)

1½ c sugar

1 lemon, thinly sliced, if desired

 

Combine 1½ cup sugar and water; cook rapidly 2 minutes. Add diced pears and boil slowly for 15 minutes. Add remaining sugar and lemon. Stir until sugar dissolves. Cook rapidly until fruit is clear, about 25 minutes. Cover and let stand for 12 to 24 hours in a cool place. Pack fruit into hot jars, leaving ¼-inch headspace. Adjust caps. Process in boiling water for 5 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 5 half-pints.

 

Fig Preserves

6 qt figs

8 c sugar

2 or 3 thinly sliced lemons

6 qt boiling water (for peeling)

 

Wash, peel, and remove stems from firm, ripe figs. To peel, cover with boiling water. Let stand 5 minutes. Drain, rinse in cold water, and pull off peel. Mix the sugar and 3 quarts water. Boil until sugar is dissolved. Add lemon slices; boil rapidly 10 minutes. Lemon slices may be removed.

Add figs, a few at a time, to the syrup so as not to stop the boiling. Cook until clear.

Let stand to plump up. Pack figs into jars. Heat syrup to boiling and pour over figs. Adjust lids.

Process in boiling water for 5 minutes. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 5 pints.

 

Grape Conserve

4½ c grapes with skins removed (about 4 lb Concord grapes)

1 orange

4 c sugar

1 c seedless raisins

½ tsp salt

skins from grapes

1 c nuts, chopped fine

 

To prepare fruit, sort and wash grapes; remove from stems. Slip skins from grapes; save skins. Measure skinned grapes into a kettle and boil, stirring constantly, for about 10 minutes, or until seeds show. Press through a sieve to remove seeds. Chop orange fine without peeling it.

To make conserve, add orange, sugar, raisins, and salt to sieved grapes. Boil rapidly, stirring constantly, until the mixture begins to thicken (about 10 minutes). Add grape skins and boil, stirring constantly, to 9°F above the boiling point of water (221°F) (about 10 minutes). Do not overcook; the mixture will thicken more on cooling. Add nuts and stir well. Remove from heat; skim.

Fill and seal containers. Process 5 minutes in boiling water. Remove jars; cool and store. Yield: 8 or 9 half-pint jars.


Publication 220 (POD-07-17)

By Brent J. Fountain, PhD, RD, CSSD, LD, FAND, Associate Extension Professor, Food Science, Nutrition, and Health Promotion.

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